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中小学英语

中小学英语

为什么要掌握第二语言?

文字:[大][中][小] 2018-8-25    浏览次数:174    

近些年,国际学校、双语学校非常热门势头之大,有些学校更是一“票”难求,家长对于双语氛围的追求可见一斑。大家都在掌握双语有好处,有帮助能考更高的分数啦、能更方便的出国啦等等。

其实,最大的益处是自己本身,来看这期的TED-ED动画教学,具体说明掌握双语会给大脑带来怎样的益处。
参考文本
¿ Hablasespañol? Parlez-vousfrançais? ni hui shuo zhong wen ma? If you answered “si”,“oui” or “hui” and you are watching this in English, chances are you belong to the world bilingual and multilingual majority. And besides having an easier time traveling, or watching movies without subtitles, knowing two or more languages means that your brain may actually look and work differently than those of your monolingual friends. So what does it really mean to know a language?

你会西班牙语吗?你会讲法语吗?你会说中文吗?如果你能回答“si”、“oui”或者“是的”,而且看这个视频用的是英文原声,那么你就可能跟世界上大多数人一样、具备双语能力或是多语能力。除了旅游时比较方便、看电影不需要字幕这些好处之外,掌握两到三种以上的语言,意味着你的大脑在结构上或运作上与你那些只会一种语言的朋友有着明显的不同。所以“掌握一门语言”到底意味着什么呢?

开头以三种语言进行设问,引出本文的讨论对象:学习双语有什么好处?此种方法新颖有趣。列举几点掌握双语所拥有的优势后,指出单、双语者的“脑回路”不同,究竟差异几何,请看下文。

Language ability is typically measured in two active parts, speaking andwriting, and two passive parts, listening and reading. While a balanced bilingual has near equal abilities across the board in two languages, mostbilinguals around the world know and use their languages invary proportions.And depending on their situation and how they acquired each language, they can be classified into three general types.

通常而言,衡量语言能力,主要包含两个主动部分——说和写,以及两个被动部分——听和读。各方面能力均衡的双语者,两种语言的听说读写水平基本差不多,但世界上大多数的双语者通晓和使用语言各方面能力的比率不同。根据个人所处的环境以及习得语言的方法,双语者通常可以分成三类。

每个人的语言能力各不同,根据主(学习方法)客(外部环境)观条件的不同,双语者分三类。

For example, let’s take Gabriella, whose family immigrates to the US from Peru when she was two-years old. As a compound bilingual, Gabriella develops two linguistic codes simultaneously, with a single set of concepts, learning both English and Spanish as she begins to process the world around her. Her teenage brother, on the other hand, might be acoordinate bilingual, working with two sets of concepts, learning English in school, while continuing to speak Spanish at home and with friends.

举个例子来说,Gabriella在两岁时跟着家人由秘鲁移民到美国。她属于“复合型双语者”,Gabriella同时建立了两套语言编码,为同一套概念,既学英语又学西班牙语,以两种语言同时理解周围世界。另一方面,她的已经是青少年的哥哥则可能是“协调型双语使用者”,他运用两套的概念,一方面在学校用英语,另一方面用西班牙语和家人、朋友交流。

Finally, Gabriella’s parents are likely to be subordinate bilinguals who learned a secondary language by filtering it through their primary language.

最后,Gabriella的父母,则属于“从属型双语者”,通过母语过滤来学习第二语言。

通过举例,三个年龄段的人分别代表三类双语者。1.幼时就开始接受双语:复合型双语者;2.青少年时期开始接触第二语言:协调型双语使用者;3.成年阶段处于第二外语环境中:从属型双语者。

Because all types of bilingual people can become fully proficient in a language regardless ofaccent and pronunciation, the difference may not be apparent to be a casual observer. But recent advances in imaging technology have given neurolinguists a glimpse into how specific aspects of language learning affect the bilingual brain.

如果不考虑口音和发音问题,这三种类型的双语者至少都算能精通一门语言。因此,一般人很难发现这三种类型的差异。然而现在,由于大脑成像技术不断进步,神经语言学家能够知道语言学习的不同方面是如何影响双语者的大脑的。

如何区分三类人,神经语言学家把大脑扒开,来给你讲讲。

It’s well known that the brain’s left hemisphere is more do minant and analytical in logical processes, while the right hemisphere is more active in emotional and social ones, though this is a matter of degree, not an absolute split.

大家都知道,大脑的左半球是掌管分析和逻辑思维,而大脑的右半球则掌管情感与社交能力,不过这只是程度问题,不是完全的左右分割。

引出左右半球的职能区分,左逻辑右感性。

The fact that language involves both types of functions while lateralization(左右侧偏性)develops gradually with age, has lead to the critical period hypothesis. According to this theory, children learn languages more easily because the plasticity of their developing brains let them use both hemispheres in language acquisition, while in most adults, language is lateralized to one hemisphere, usually the left.

语言同时包括了左脑和右脑的功能,而随着年龄的增长,大脑的功能会逐渐侧重其中的一边,这就引出了“关键时期假说”。根据这个理论,儿童学习语言更容易,是因为他们的大脑仍在发展、可塑性更强,他们可以同时调用左右两边大脑的机能来学习语言;然而多数成年人只通过大脑的一边(通常是左脑)学习语言。

借由“关键期假说”说明儿童与成年人在学习语言时大脑的区别。儿童善于调用双脑来学习,而成人多用左脑。
If this is true, learning a language in childhood may give you a more holistic grasp of its social and emotional contexts. Conversely, recent research showed that people who learned a second language in adult hood exhibit less emotional bias and a more rational approach when confronting problems in the second language than their native one.

如果这个假说是真的,那么在儿童时期学习语言可以让你更能从整体上把握语言的社会和情感背景。相应地,近期的研究表明,成年人学习外语时的情绪性偏见没那么多,同时相比于母语环境,他们在外语环境中遇到问题时也更为理性。

继续就“关键期假说”指明二者最终习得效果的区别。
But regardless of when you acquire additional languages, being multilingual gives your brain some remarkable advantages. Some of these are even visible, such higher density of the gray matter that contains most of your brain’s neurons and synapses, and more activity in certain regions when engaging a second language. The heightened workout a bilingual brain receives throughout its life can also help delay the onset of diseases, like Alzheimers and Dementia by as much as 5 years.

但无论如何,当你学习一门新的语言时,掌握多种语言对你的大脑大有助益。有些好处甚至是可见的,比如脑灰质的密度更高,那里包含了大多数的神经元和突触,而且在使用第二语言时,大脑的部分区域会变得更加活跃。双语者的大脑可以持续不断地接收强化训练,这能帮助延缓阿尔茨海默和老年痴呆症的发作,达五年之久。

掌握多种语言的可见好处,从大脑结构说开来,从科学角度说明双语者可延缓得老年痴呆等疾病的时间。
The idea of major cognitive benefits to bilingualism may seem intuitive now, but it would have surprised earlier experts. Before the 1960s, bilingualism was considered a handicap that slowed the child’s development by forcing them to spend them too much energy distinguishing between languages, a view based largely on flawed studies.

双语能力对认知能力的有所帮助在现代来看是很好理解的,但是对于早期的专家来说,却是意料之外。在1960年之前,人们认为使用双语对于儿童的成长来说是一种障碍,因为这需要儿童花费精力去分辨别不同语言,这种观点的产生源自错误的研究分析。

话锋一转,虽然现在这种益处显而易见,但早期人们对于双语能力却有着错误认知,以为双语会阻碍儿童发展。

And while a more recent study did show that reaction times and errors increase for some bilingual students in cross-language tests, it also showed that the effort and attention needed to switch between languages triggered more activity in, and potentially strengthened, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This is the part of brain that plays a large role in executive function, problem solving, switching between tasks, and focusing while filtering out irrelevant information.

最新的研究的确显示,在跨语言测验当中,双语者的反应时间与错误次数增加了;同时也表明,学生需要花费更多的努力和注意力进行语言的转换,这也使得前额叶脑区更加活跃、进而强化其机能。这是大脑中主管执行功能的部分,解决问题、多任务转换、集中注意力、排除无关信息的能力。

通过最新研究,指出双语者的大脑更活跃,各项机能更完善。
So, while bilingual may not necessarily make you smarter, it does make your brain more healthy, complex and actively engaged, and even if you didn’t have the good fortune of learning a second language likea child, it’s never too late to do yourself a favor and make the linguistic leap from, ”Hello” to “Hola”, ”Bonjour” or “ninhao’s”because when it comes to our brains a little exercise can go a long way.


虽然学习双语不一定能让你更聪明,但是它可以让你的大脑更加健康、复杂和活跃。即使你在年幼时没有机会学习第二语言,但是现在学习永远不会太晚。从现在开始学一门外语吧,把“hello”转换成“Hola”、“Bonjour”、“你好”(本文作者母语为英语)等外语问候。对于我们的大脑来说,即使只是小小的训练,也会有大大的助益。

以上就是小编为大家总结的小知识,如果您还有更多疑问,欢迎大家致电咨询。

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